Product Highlights First published in , Towards a Theory of Schooling explores and debates the relationship between school and society. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it.
See our disclaimer. Customer Reviews. Write a review. See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product. Email address. Please enter a valid email address. Walmart Services. Get to Know Us. Customer Service. In The Spotlight. Shop Our Brands. All Rights Reserved.
Cancel Submit. How was your experience with this page? Needs Improvement Love it! Goen, Some thoughts concerning the present revival of religion in New England and the way in which it ought to be acknowledged and promoted. The works of Jonathan Edwards, Vol. See also Gary D. See also Leo Lowenthal, Communication in Society.
See Stout, Divine Dramatist , See also Dallimore, Whitefield, Generally regarded as a second groundswell of evangelical Protestant religious interest following the Revolutionary War, the Second Great Awakening was more extensive and enduring than the Great Awakening of the ss. No certain or obvious stopping point for the Great Awakening exists; the same is true for the Second Great Awakening.
The same could be said for developments among Baptists, Methodists, Anglicans, etc. By following three key exemplars of the movement, it is possible to sketch out many of the key characteristics of the Second Great Awakening. The rapid expansion of the fledgling nation across the Appalachians created a vast territory with little or no rule of law, where settlers and outlaws often battled to an uneasy seasons of peace, and leaving a spiritual vacuum which revivalists rushed in to fill.
Denominational ties began to lose their meaning in meetings where as many as seven pastors from four denominations were preaching in various parts of the camp simultaneously. Dwight preached twice each Sunday in mandatory college church services: a morning sermon addressed to a doctrinal topic, and an afternoon discourse on more practical and experiential applications of faith, using scripture and Common Sense Realism Thomas Reid and John Witherspoon to defend his theology.
Regarded as the father of modern revivalism, Charles G. Finney was the human catalyst for some of the most impressive urban revivals in United States history and in the process created the methodology for virtually all evangelists who followed. Bright, athletic, unusually tall, and musically gifted, his theatrical preaching drew enthusiastic crowds and produced numerous converts. The experience launched Finney into national prominence, and after accepting brief pastorates in New York and Boston, he eventually settled at Oberlin College OH as a faculty member and later president.
It was during this era that Finney delivered and published his wildly popular Revival Lectures , one of the most widely read books in American religious history. William G. Smith, p. Oberlin was one of the first colleges in the nation to admit blacks and women as students in full standing and the clear leader for the anti-slavery movement in the mid-west.
While it is as difficult to find a clear ending point to the Second Great Awakening as it is to find a clear beginning, its impact was felt deep into the nineteenth-century and beyond. Politically, it is difficult to miss the connection to the democratization of American society and the democratization of the church. However, the direction of that influence is difficult to measure.
Globally, the Second Great Awakening birthed the beginning of a massive evangelical missionary movement, first to the Native American communities and eventually to foreign missions. Culturally, the awakening contributed to a sense of national cohesion at a time of profound social change, but most likely also fueled a sense of manifest destiny that deeply wounded the very Native American populations the revivalists most wanted to evangelize.
Alvarez, Carmelo, and David N. Louis: Chalice Press. Conkin, Paul Keith. Cross, Whitney R. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Finney, Charles G. Lectures on Revivals of Religion. Guelzo, Allen. An Heir or a Rebel? Journal of the Early Republic. Kidd, Thomas. New Haven, Conn. McLoughlin, William G.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Grand Rapids, Mich: W. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Smith, Ted A. New York: Cambridge University Press. Smith, Timothy L. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Williams, David Newell. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University. On my left, horses plod around a riding circle at, well, a lot less than 65 miles per hour. What gives? Why would anyone invest so much time and money striving to master such an outdated mode of transportation?
It takes years to painstakingly advance through learning to walk, trot, cantor, gallop, jump, dressage, etc. Then, once you do achieve riding excellence, your top speed is still only a fraction of that of the traffic whizzing by on the freeway. I mean, if your goal is to get from Pasadena to Hollywood, then this horseback riding thing is a total waste of time.
Just buy a Jag and get on with it. Yet if you think of horseback riding as something designed to get you somewhere on your busy schedule then you are missing the entire point. Now at first glance, striving to master 2, year-old spiritual disciplines seems even more irrelevant than learning to ride a horse. I mean, at least horseback riding might help you land a role, or inspire a screenplay. What earthly good does it do to invest the time and energy it takes to master practices like prayer, meditation, fasting, Torah-study, or Psalm-singing?
Yet, if you think of the spiritual disciplines only as something to get you somewhere in your career, you are missing the entire point. Spiritual disciplines are not tools for getting you from failure to success. They are pathways for keeping you alive spiritually in the constantly shifting landscape of success and failure that is Hollywood. There is always another rung to climb on the ladder of success.
Prayer, meditation, study, etc. They are part of what early Rabbis referred to as their yoke —the teachings and spiritual practices each Rabbi used to guide their students into a deeper relationship with God. Yet, the promise of a life centered in God and his ways made the effort worthwhile. See, Rabbinic Higher Education. Jesus of Nazareth built upon this rabbinic tradition to shape his own version of spiritual formation. Like vines on a branch, Jesus promised his followers that if they would focus upon staying connected to the life of God, then the life of God would flow into them and bear fruit in everything they do John The spiritual disciplines are one of the key means by which we maintain that connection.
See, With Prayer in the School of Christ. USC philosophy professor, Dallas Willard, has worked tirelessly over the last few decades to describe how Christian spiritual formation can and should help us maintain our connection to the life and the love of God in the Academy, Hollywood, and beyond. He states:. He sends us the Way to himself. In its deepest nature and meaning our universe is a community of boundless and totally competent love. Like horseback riding, staying connected to the life and love of God is not a one-size-fits-all process. The same is true for those seeking to cultivate a relationship with God.
The disciplines that help one person are often torture for another. The key for some is sitting quietly in a beautiful sanctuary, for others it is walking in the beauty of nature, for some connection to God is found among books in a quiet library, for still another it is best found amidst music is a raucous worship service.
The point of spiritual discipline is not to perform some cookie-cutter religious ritual to make God like you better, but rather to find the pathways that best help your soul connect to the God who already loves you infinitely, ultimately, and unconditionally. In the following weeks I will explore a number of the key concepts and disciplines that have been most helpful to a variety of leaders in Hollywood, the Ivy League, and beyond in living a soul-nourishing life in a soul-deadening world. My hope is that we can help you create your own individualized set of spiritual disciplines that help you stay connected to the life and love of God even in the most pressurized situations.
Of course there is another way: the way of giving in to a soul-deadness. Will we? Why Lent is a lot Like Surfing. Sacred Rhythms , by Ruth Haley Barton. The Organic God , by Margaret Feinberg. The Celebration of Discipline , by Richard Foster. Invitation to a Journey , by Robert Mulholland. The Way of the Heart , by Henri Nouwen. Emotionally Healthy Spirituality , by Peter Scazzero. Sacred Pathways , by Gary Thomas. The Spirit of the Disciplines , by Dallas Willard. Maher New Testament Studies, 22, pp It is difficult to imagine what European civilization might have become without the integrative mindset fostered among the faculty and students in the Alexandrian Christian College.
Boasting three of the most influential minds of the Patristic era—Clement, Origen, and Athanasius—among their faculty and alumni, this single educational community provided clear-headed theological reflection and courageous cultural leadership in a number of the key turning points in early church history. So much so, Eusebius reports that many non-Christian noblemen entrusted their sons to instruction there.
The school became the training ground from which Athanasius launched his attack against the official Roman endorsement of Arianism. Each time Athanasius and his Alexandrian delegation were rebuffed and even excommunicated in church counsels in Rome, they returned to Alexandria for deliberations and prayer in their robust educational community.
Each stand as reminders of the influence of Christian higher education rooted in theological reflection. One of the keys to the influence of these learning communities is the surprising degree to which the life of the mind and the life of the Spirit can and often do coexist in a Christian liberal arts education. Authentically Christian colleges and universities birthed many of the most significant reformation and renewal movements in history, while most reformation and renewal movements have, in turn, spawned colleges themselves.
In fact, the broad historic definition of the term evangelical is best applied to movements who hold to both the power of the Holy Spirit to produce new birth and holy lives with the power of the holy scriptures to guide and shape the life and practice of the church. It is in these renewal schools that the integration of the life of the Spirit and the life of the mind has achieved its greatest synergy.
The study of the Word of God, and the World of God, when empowered by the Spirit of God has proven profoundly transformational in the lives of students and in their ability to transform church and society. By cultivating both the life of the mind and the life of the Spirit they were able to produce students capable of mastering both faith formation and culture making. Burtchaell , Marsden , Reuben , Benne , Budde and Wright , Ringenberg and others have carefully outlined just how easily colleges lose their spiritual cutting-edge. Whether Catholic or Protestant, Reformed or Wesleyan, nearly every time a church-founded college or university manages to achieve societal respectability and financial independence they have immediately abandoned their integrative mission.
Their graduates go into the world with one hand tied behind their backs to the detriment of their own souls and the culture they create. It turns out that balancing a commitment to the life of the mind and the life of the Spirit even in a Christian college is not so easy as one would suppose. Will the twenty-first-century be any different? And so lethally repeated, emerge pretty clearly from these stories.
Will the leaders of 21 st century Christian colleges rise to his challenge? The future of two-handed higher education may very well depend upon it. Benne, R. Quality with soul: how six premier colleges and universities keep faith with their religious traditions. Budde, M. Conflicting allegiances: the church-based university in a liberal democratic society. Burtchaell, J. The dying of the light: the disengagement of colleges and universities from their Christian churches.
Eerdmans Pub. Holmes, A. The idea of a Christian college. Grand Rapids: W. Marsden, G. The Secularization of the academy. The soul of the American university: From protestant establishment to established nonbelief. Newman, J. The idea of a university: Defined and illustrated. Reuben, J. The making of the modern university: Intellectual transformation and the marginalization of morality. Ringenberg, W. Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic. His pedagogy was highly relational and centered on the creation of a learning community where master and disciples lived in close proximity to one another and forged a friendship.
John While prayer was part of all Jewish education, this overarching commitment to prayer goes far beyond any Rabbi of his day. For Jesus prayer and education were inseparable, because education and the knowledge of God are inseparable. Jesus taught his students that true spiritual life is found in knowing God John This emphasis was consistent with the Hebraic concept that to know is to experience.
This experiential knowledge of God was to be sought not only through the discipline of study as important as this might be , but in prayer as well. While the fatherhood of God is absent from the Torah, it is clearly evident in the Psalms and Prophets, and later Rabbinic writings. This emphasis runs throughout his teachings, and is particularly evident in his approach to prayer.
In this brief prayer, Jesus initiates his students into an intimate address of God as Father that must have been as breathtaking as it was formative. It is an astonishing choice of words. Abba implies a close, personal and familial relationship. Prayer was a critical educational practice, because in prayer students encountered genuine knowledge of God the Father.
The eschatological thrust of the petition is clear. Matthew He modeled, mentored and coached his students into an increasing participation in supernatural answers to prayer. He pressed his students to grow into a confidence that no prayer was too big for God John ; ,16; He taught them that certain kinds of spiritual resistance could be overcome only through prayer Mark He assured them that miraculous answers to prayer they experienced in his earthly ministry would continue in the new era of the Spirit John Romans ; 1 Corinthians There are countless historical factors the East-West Schism, the Enlightenment, the German university model, etc.
But are they good enough reasons not to try? If we are truly seeking to develop two-handed warriors distinguished by a commitment to both the life of the mind and the life of the Spirit, the issue could be life or death. It has been forty years since J.
Matthew and are therefore bored out of their minds. And who can blame them. Jesus would say that we can, but only if we summon the courage to cultivate educational communities of prayer. We need to be able to offer students the power of answered prayer to break through the insipid deism of a materialistic worldview. We need to be able to offer students the intimacy of reflective prayer to encounter the love of the Father and evoke genuine love of God in return.
What on earth does prayer have to do with higher education? You decide. With Christ in the School of Prayer. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, Wilkins for much of my understanding of the similarity between discipleship in the schools of Jesus, the Rabbis, and the Greeks. Nickelsburg, Ancient Judaism and Christian origins: diversity, continuity and transformation. Minneapolis, Minn: Fortress, Wilson, Our father Abraham: Jewish roots of the Christian faith. Eerdmans, , p. See, N. Bock, Luke The assertion is as true today as it was when when Jeremias first made it.
See also Dunn , The partings of the ways: between Christianity and Judaism and their significance for the character of Christianity. London: SCM Press, , p. Green, The theology of the gospel of Luke. Dunn, The Christ and the spirit: collected essays of James D. Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans. Menzies, The development of early Christian pneumatology Sheffield, U.
Meier, A marginal Jew: rethinking the historical Jesus.
Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans, , p. Brown, Ed. Journal for the study of the New Testament, Despite his every effort, they remained completely apathetic about their faith. His youth group was literally the laughing stock of the town. Something had to be done. However, Jon was not your typical youth pastor.
His three-fold strategy to win his students to Christ was not for the faint of heart. After a year and a half of intense efforts… nothing changed. One was a young woman who had been the ringleader of the party crowd. They came to Christ in a flood and would talk of nothing but Jesus and eternal things for hours on end.
The change in the young people was so dramatic that soon the work of God spread to their parents and then to the entire town. Jon later wrote:. Churches began to passionately preach the truth and create small groups where people could connect with one another and the word of God. They began to unite in prayer asking God to pour out his Spirit upon their efforts and awaken the hearts of those farthest from God.
M uch was done in a day or two, as at ordinary times … is done in a year. To Edwards, spiritual awakening was key to the mission of the church and academy. Could he be right? What might such a movement look like in American churches, youth groups, colleges, and cities? As George M. As Marsden expressed so eloquently in his biography of Edwards:. Otherwise we are stuck only with the wisdom of the present.
Goen Ed. Stout, General Ed. Originally written as an unpublished letter, dated May 30, , to Boston clergyman, Benjamin Colman, who had requested an account of the Connecticut River Valley revival of It was first published in London in Normally r eferred to as Faithful Narrative. Revell , , p.
Eastborne, UK: Kingsway , , p.
Physical Education and Curriculum Study (Routledge Revivals)
This viewpoint is also held by most Wesleyan e. Williams, ; Keener, See also, Sinclair B. Ferguson, The Holy Spirit: contours of Christian theology. Persons ought to do what they can for their s alvation Ecclesiastes Stout, K. Minkema, C. Maskell Eds. Privately published in Boston Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books , , p. Wilson Ed. Originally a series of sermons preached in that were later expanded and published posthumously in Carwardine, ; P.
Miller, , p. See also, J. Fitzmier, ; Smith, ; Ringenberg, , , ; and Reuben, New York: Oxford University Press , , p. I speak out too for love of my neighbors who are my only sons; for them I gave up my home country, my parents and even pushing my own life to the brink of death. If I have any worth, it is to live my life for God so as to teach these peoples; even though some of them still look down on me.
Saint Patrick is credited with numerous extraordinary feats, both legendary and mythical. In fact, the myth and the man are so intertwined, it is often difficult to tell fact from fiction. Can you name which of the following common beliefs about the patron saint of Ireland are true and which are myths?
Mostly true: When Patrick arrived in Ireland in c. When he died c. Myth: There were never many snakes in Ireland. However, God did use Patrick to perform many other miracles in order to demonstrate the power of the Gospel over and against the dark powers of the druids. True: He used the three-leafed plant to teach the doctrine of the Trinity. Myth: But Patrick probably would have liked it. Beer and mead were the favorite drinks of the Celts and many monasteries became known for their excellent breweries.
The liberal arts and the Christian faith were not immediately on the best speaking terms. While the classically trained apostle Paul treated philosophers in Athens as fellow truth-seekers Acts 17 , Greco-Roman philosophy and philosophers were as likely to be viewed as enemies of the gospel as anything else 1 Cor. Many early Christian apologists used their liberal arts education to refute much of the Greek philosophy of their persecutors, the end result was often an entrenched anti-intellectualism in the church.
Perhaps the most notable of which was the catechetical school and religious community was established by Augustine of Hippo in the early years of the fifth-century. He devoted several sections of Christian Education to the liberal arts and even began but never finished a complete treatise devoted to the liberal arts. Their common goals of truth-seeking and leadership training coupled with their nearly identical discipleship-based pedagogy helped calm the once stormy relationship. Patrick arrived in Ireland not as a solo missionary, but as the head of a liberal arts embracing religious community comprised of masters and disciples.
Their methodology was the highly relational educational approach they had inherited from the monastic movement, now turned to a missional purpose. After making contact with the heads of various Celtic tribes, he sought permission to establish a community on the outskirts of the village. A grammar school where Celts were taught to read was one of the first projects in each village, instilling a love of learning where Christianity and the liberal arts were each held in high honor. The native Celts were then invited to take part in discussions, classes, artistic, and agricultural projects.
Invariably this relational intellectualism slowly won the village to faith and a local Celtic church was established. Patrick was very familiar with Celtic customs, and language due to his time spent as a slave in Ireland in his youth. He sought to redeem Celtic art and worship rather than eradicate them. Not surprisingly, Patrick was one of the first vocal opponents of slavery in church history. The Irish slave trade was virtually abolished in Ireland wherever Patrick established a church. Devastating social practices such as revenge murder and inter-tribal warfare were also greatly reduced.
Like all monasticism, the life of the mind was eclipsed only by devotion to the life of the Spirit. Prayer played a particularly critical role in Celtic learning communities. See , With Prayer in the School of Christ. Like Patrick, the graduates of his liberal arts learning community were fearless in asking the Spirit of God to intervene in the world in supernatural ways. And God answered those prayers with miracles, signs, and wonders far beyond anything the Druids could muster. This Celtic synthesis Spirit, Mind, and Art in a communal approach to missions was nearly irresistible in its power.
His schools were so effective at training leaders that he was able to ordain over 1, Celtic priests. Augustine was even warned by the Pope not to get too big a head due to all the miracles God had performed through him. In the process of winning the British Isles to faith, Patrick and his spiritual descendants succeeded in saving the liberal arts tradition as well.
And it was from England that missionaries carried Latin culture, books and learning back to a large part of the Continent. Indeed, if Dean is only half right, then the Christian faith in American is in serious trouble. P atrick and the Christian liberal arts community he founded were defined by their missional imagination. Are we? I would argue that for the Christian liberal arts College of the 21 st Century to be of any use to God and to the world we must recapture our missional imagination as well.
Building upon the missiological thinking of Leslie Newbigin , Andrew F. Patrick certainly thought so. Thinking Missionally About Higher Education. How might we do this? At the danger of losing the principle in the midst of flawed practices, let me suggest four ways that missional thinking might help transform our colleges into better world-changing institutions and more deeply transform our students in the process. How odd this language would have sounded to Patrick. Making a difference in the world was something faculty and students did together as part and parcel of their shared educational experience.
Without detracting from the preparatory nature of higher education nor giving way to knee-jerk activism that too often serves largely out of a sense of guilt or self-congratulation, one way to reenergize our schools and our over-entertained and profoundly bored students would be for faculty to invite students into missional communities seeking to use their expertise to make a difference in the world now.
I like the way Gabe Lyons describes the hunger for the next generation of Christians to live out their calling beyond the walls of the church:. Brokenness exists within each channel of culture… We are called to find things that are broken and affect them in some positive way… Put simply, the next Christians recognize their responsibility not only to build up the church but also to build up society to the glory of God.
From genetic scientists to artists, businesspeople to educators, these Christians are letting their gifts flood the world from the place they feel called to work. They have a keen eye to sense what is missing, broken, or corrupted and are courageous enough to respond. In other words, they need psychologists to help psychology students, philosophers to help philosophy students, economists to help economy students use their calling to missionally better the world now. If not now, when? Business as usual will not cut it. If faculty, staff and executives are to lead students in the process of missional education then something has to change.
Faculty senates could redefine faculty tenure and promotion policies in such a way that peer-reviewed scholarly writing is coupled with student-shared scholarly engagement in culture. College executives could release strategic resources i. Dean concludes her book with a note of hope. Students want to be part of something bigger than they are, something that really makes a difference in the world. They want to change the world. Patrick was over 45 years old, well past the life expectancy of his day, when he launched his mission to Ireland.
His vision was enormous, maybe even foolhardy. It was also transformative. Patrick redirected the liberal arts learning communities of his day from their purely interior focused purpose to one that was truly missional. In doing so he actually strengthened their spiritual vitality, and their intellectual firepower rather than diminishing it. He also changed the world. The Liberal Arts and the Great Awakening. Nicholas and St.
Valentine rank higher on the hipness chart. Carpenter Ed. It difficult to know for certain if Patrick actually wrote the prayer personally or if it grew out of the Celtic prayer community. Founded in the fifth-century BC, the liberal arts tradition grew out of the Greco-Roman ideal of developing the life of the mind in a soul-nurturing relational environment. Bruce M.
Kimball , discerns two distinct streams in the liberal arts traditions—the philosophical and the oratorical. It was birthed in the life and teachings of Socrates , as recorded by Plato c. They were learning to think, so that they could lead their culture toward the good, the beautiful, and the true.
Towards a Theory of Schooling (Routledge Revivals) - CRC Press Book
The two streams developed in tension with one other and eventually converged in the Middle Ages with the establishment of a curriculum rooted in the Trivium —Grammar, Rhetoric, Dialectic, and the Quadrivium —Arithmetic, Music, Geometry, and Astronomy Cobban, , p. Michael J. Wilkins notes that the master-disciple relationship was the key to education in the Greco-Roman world. The Socratic method of instruction necessitated intimate relationships in tight-knit learning community p.
He believed that it is impossible for a student to learn from a teacher who is not also his friend Kraut, While numerous historical, economic, and pragmatic factors led to most twentieth-century American colleges gradually abandoning the liberal arts tradition of friendship and virtue even in many liberal arts colleges , the impact has been devastating.
It is a difficult thesis to refute. Whereas Plato and Aristotle interacted with their students as friends, the depersonalized modern university student is often little more than a number. No relationship means no moral transformation, at least not for the good. Perhaps its time to consider going back to the future. It seems highly unlikely that twenty-first-century educators will ever be to cultivate two-handed warriors without a radical reexamination of the student-teacher relationship.
Whatever the twenty-first century higher education might look like, whether on residential campuses or online communities, we cannot assemble two-handed warriors in educational assembly lines. They need to be nurtured in tight-knit learning communities. The Greco-Roman tradition provided an algorithm that has really never been improved upon—the deeper the student-teacher connection, the deeper the impact.
Smaller is better. Apprenticeship is ideal. Mentoring is life or death. Next post in the series, click: Rabbinic Higher Education. Notes Cobban, Alan The medieval universities: their development and organization. London: Methuen. Hoeckley, Christian a. Hoeckley, Christian b. Kimball, Bruce A. Interpreting the liberal arts: four lectures on the history and historiography of the liberal arts. Kraut, Richard. Edward N. Zalta ed. Reuben, Julie The making of the modern university: intellectual transformation and the marginalization of morality.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Taylor, James E. Wilkins, Michael J. Following the master: a biblical theology of discipleship. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, Whether in real life or a work of fiction, most stories begin with a hero  pursuing largely self-centered goals designed to help them survive in their current circumstances. In Gladiator Maximus just wants to go home to his family and farm. In Star Wars Luke Skywalker desires only to get off the planet to be with his friends at school. Then something happens; something screenwriters refer to as the inciting event.
You need some kind of event to jump-start the hero out of his paralysis and force him to act. Caesar unexpectedly commissions Maximus as protector of Rome in order to re-establish a true Republic. In each case, the inciting event presents the hero with a decision: Shall I continue in the relative comfort of my business-as-usual life or risk pursuing a new and more dangerous goal? The entire story turns when and only when the hero makes this difficult choice.
Any one of them could have stopped to help. Only one did. Everyone faced the same event, yet only Leigh Anne Tuohy was incited by it. We tell her story because she acted. Our heart is that aspect of our inner being that attracts us toward some people, ideas, or actions and repels us from other people, ideas, and actions.
When the hero answers their story question in the affirmative it reveals something deeper in the their soul than any casual observer could notice. Something in Erin Brokovich compassion? Something in Maximus duty? While this single experience never completely transforms the hero—numerous temptations to give up or turn back will come later—something in the inciting event causes them to take their first step of their journey away from a mere longing for comfort and convenience and into something deeper. They want something more and are willing to take action to pursue it. For instance, in J.
Then something Tookish woke up inside him, and he wished to go and see the great mountains, and hear the pine-trees and the waterfalls, and explore the caves, and wear a sword instead of a walking-stick. His zeal for God is both revealed and transformed by the voice from heaven. In both inciting event types the hero is confronted with a choice before the story can even begin. Obviously, the inciting event is only the beginning of this revelation and transformation, but it is crucial to writing and living a great story.
Edwards rejects the commonly held notion that our affections and our will are two separate components of our inner being, so that our affections might want one thing, but our will chooses another. We do what we love. That religion which God requires, and will accept, does not consist in weak, dull, and lifeless wishes, raising us but a little above a state of indifference.
God, in his word, greatly insists upon it, that we be in good earnest, fervent in spirit, and our hearts vigorously engaged. This is why Lent can be so transformative.