However, copper-mediated coupling reactions can be carried out at a lower cost compared with using palladium catalysts. So, various modified methods have been studied and more practical reactions have been developed.
Recent advances in the Ullmann-type reactions using aryl halides have been achieved under milder reaction conditions and reducing the amount of copper catalyst by the choice of suitable solvents, bases, and ligands. Also, investigation of effective ligands for these reactions has been developed and found that the diamine and dicarbonyl compounds effectively play as a ligand in preventing side reactions and deactivating a monovalent copper catalyst.
For instance, CuTc copper I 2-thiophenecarboxylate catalyzed the Ullmann coupling and can proceed at room temperature without having to apply heat. CuTc also acts as a co-catalyst of palladium catalyzed reactions. In a case of the Liebeskind-Srogl cross coupling reaction, CuTc assisted activation of thioesters plays an important role in promoting the coupling reaction.
Furthermore, the coupling reaction of aryl boronic acids with amines, phenols, and thiols promoted by a divalent copper and an oxygen from the air as a reoxidant, is known as the Chan-Lam-Evans coupling. This is a halogen-free coupling reaction and the stirring efficiency is important for the reaction to proceed due to reoxidizing the copper catalyst by an oxygen in the air. Zhang, J. Cheng, J. Srivastava, D. Yadav, A. Yadav, G. Watal, L. Yadav, Synlett , , 24 , Nasrollahzadeh, A. Ehsani, M. Maham, Synlett , , 25 , Moon, J.
Nam, K. Rathwell, W.
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Chen, M. He, Q. Chen, Synlett , , A cross-coupling reaction of arylboronic acids with KSCN salt to yield aryl thiocyanates is catalyzed by copper acetate in the presence of 4-methylpyridine serving both as ligand and base under 0. Various arylboronic acids were suitable under the reaction conditions. Sun, H. Click to read or download. Beletskaya and Alexey Yu. See All Customer Reviews.
The copper-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of aryl diazonium salts and isocyanides
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